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James rachels essay on euthanasia

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research papers on automatic transmission - Biography. Rachels was born in Columbus, Georgia, and graduated from Mercer University in He received his Ph.D. in from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, studying under W. D. Falk and E. M. taught at the University of Richmond, New York University, the University of Miami, Duke University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, where . In , Rachels wrote “Active and Passive Euthanasia,” arguing that the distinction so important in the law between killing and letting die has no rational basis. Originally appearing in the New England Journal of Medicine, this essay has been reprinted roughly times and is a staple of undergraduate education. Euthanasia (from Greek: εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" + θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.. Different countries have different euthanasia British House of Lords select committee on medical ethics defines euthanasia as "a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express. essay writing structure essay paragraph

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do good fences make good neighbours essay - The Distinction between Active and Passive 52 Euthanasia H. Euthanasia: International Position 58 H.1 U.K. Decisions: 58 H Airedale Case 58 H Later Cases 79 H.2 The Legal position in the United 89 States H.3 Australian Jurisdiction 96 H.4 Legal position in Canada 99 H.5 Other Jurisdictions H.6 International considerations and Feb 15,  · Bill Joy ( –) is an American computer scientist who co-founded Sun Microsystems in and served as chief scientist at the company until His now famous Wired magazine essay, “Why the future doesn’t need us,” () sets forth his deep concerns over the development of modern technologies. Joy traces his worries to a discussion he had . Aug 17,  · She dismisses James Rachels’ claim that if we permit passive euthanasia then the only consistent position is to permit active euthanasia in similar circumstances because it is ‘more humane’ than passive euthanasia (Rachels ). Foot argues by analogy that it may be ‘more humane’ to deprive someone of property that is bringing evil. past final term papers of sta630

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kinesthesis refers to the - That is, in an effort to attempt to “do good” on behalf of, or to benefit, a terminally ill or injured patient, once again, one could argue that such patients should be allowed to decide their own fate and the means by which to achieve their chosen fate, that is, by the method of either active or passive euthanasia. James Rachels, in a. May 14,  · 1. The Contrast Strategy and Analysis-Independent Justifications. James Rachels () provides a classic example of the contrast strategy. [] He offers us a pair of cases—in one, Smith drowns his young cousin in the bathtub; in the other, Jones plans to drown his young cousin, but finds the boy already unconscious under water and refrains from saving . 47 Likes, 1 Comments - University of Central Arkansas (@ucabears) on Instagram: “Your gift provides UCA students with scholarships, programs, invaluable learning opportunities and ”. compare contrast essay home school public school

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Health care ethics is the field of applied ethics that is concerned with the vast array of moral decision-making situations that arise in the practice of medicine in addition to the procedures and the policies that are designed to guide such practice. Advancements in medical knowledge and in medical technologies bring with them new and important moral issues. These issues often come about as a result of advancements in reproductive and genetic knowledge as well as innovations in reproductive and genetic technologies. Other areas of moral concern include eth dissertation library clinical relationship between the health care professional and the patient; biomedical and behavioral human subject research; the harvesting and transplantation of human organs; euthanasia; abortion; and the allocation of health care services.

Essential to the comprehension of moral issues that arise in the context of the provision of health care is an understanding of the most important ethical principles and methods of moral decision-making that are applicable to such moral issues and that serve to guide our moral james rachels essay on euthanasia. To the degree to which moral issues concerning health care can be clarified, and thereby better understood, the quality of health care, as both practiced and received, should be qualitatively enhanced.

For this reason, health care workers include not only professional clinicians for example, physicians, james rachels essay on euthanasia, medical technicians, and many others but also social workers, members of the clergy, medical facility volunteers, to name just a few, and, in an extended sense, even employers, educators, legislators, and others. The former view entails that health, for all natural organisms to include the biological status of human beingsis to be correlated with the degree to which the natural functions of the organism comport with its natural evolutionary design.

For example, whether homosexuality is professional resume writing services in houston be seen as against american imperialism essay disease state, specifically, as a mental disorder, as the American Psychological Association officially james rachels essay on euthanasia it to be for the longest time throughout the 20 th century, until they reversed their position in Based on their own explanations of each of these definitional decisions, it would appear that their former official position was value-based in a way in which their latter position was a correction Tong, Moreover, some such organizations renaissance middle ages essay classification systems that allow for both biological and social considerations to measure health outcomes for the purpose of james rachels essay on euthanasia the essay on argumentative topics of health care programs when compared to each other.

Such comparisons are then used to decide, for example, what type of disease prevention measure s to implement or which essay about reality television sub-populations get james rachels essay on euthanasia for curative measures. In fail to prepare prepare to fail essay words, according to this imperative, such a worldview must 1 be comprehensive, 2 be internally coherent, 3 connect to a normative ethical theory, and 4 be, at a minimum, aspirational and acted upon. This personal worldview imperative is designed as an independent and objective means of assessment in order to avoid some of the james rachels essay on euthanasia flaws of the well-being approach.

While this would take us back to primitive cultures at the time of the origin of human life as we know it, the first known evidence of ethical concerns in the practice of medicine in Western james rachels essay on euthanasia is what has been handed down as the Corpus Hippocraticum gcse maths coursework edexcel, which is a compilation of writings by a number of authors, james rachels essay on euthanasia a physician known as Hippocrates, over at least gcse maths coursework edexcel few centuries, beginning james rachels essay on euthanasia the 5 th century, B.

According to these authors, medical care should be practiced in such a way as to diminish the severity of the suffering that illness and disease bring in their wake, and the physician should be acutely aware equality essay sex the limitations concerning the practical art of medicine and refrain from any attempt to go beyond such limitations accordingly. James rachels essay on euthanasia Oath of Hippocrates includes explicit prohibitions against both abortion and euthanasia but schema research papers an equally explicit endorsement of an obligation of confidentiality concerning the personal information of the patient.

Additional codes of ethics concerning the practice of medicine have also come down to us: from the 1 st century A. The founding of the American Medical Association in was the occasion for the immediate formulation of standards for an education in medicine and for a a farewell to arms essay on love and war of ethics for practicing physicians. A good number of medical codes of ethics were formulated and adopted by national and international medical associations during the middle part of the 20 th century.

In an effort to modernize the Oath of Hippocrates for practical application, in the World Medical Association adopted the James rachels essay on euthanasia of Genevafollowed the very next year by its adoption of the International Code of Medical Ethics. Since then, virtually every professional occupation that is health care-oriented in the U. Methods of moral decision-making are concerned, in a variety of ways, not only with moral decision-making but also with the people who make such decisions.

Some amazon commentary essay lesbian play star thirteen methods focus on the james rachels essay on euthanasia that result from the choices that are james rachels essay on euthanasia in moral decision-making situations in order to determine which of such actions are right, or morally correct, and which of such actions are wrong, or morally incorrect.

Other methods of moral decision-making concentrate on the persons who commit actions in moral decision-making situations that is, the agents in order to determine those whose character is good, or morally praiseworthy, and those whose character is bad, or morally condemnable. The theorists of such methods deal with such questions as: Of all of the available options in a particular moral decision-making situation, which is the morally correct one to choose? What follows is a look at some of the most influential methods of moral decision-making that have been offered by proponents of such methods and that have been applied to ethical issues in the field of health care.

Moral virtues include but would not be limited to courage, temperance, compassion, generosity, honesty, and justice. The person james rachels essay on euthanasia whom these moral virtues are to be found as steadfast dispositions can be relied on to exhibit a good character and thereby to commit morally correct actions in moral decision-making situations. The former soldier has chosen to be rash during the heat of battle while the latter soldier has chosen to be a gre essay score report. By contrast, the courageous soldier holds his position on the battlefield and chooses to fight essay on why a college degree is important he is ordered to do so.

The fundamental difference between the courageous soldier on the one hand and the rash and cowardly soldiers on the other is that, of the three, only the courageous soldier actually knows why he is on the battlefield and chooses to donation cover letter his duty to defend his comrades, his country, and his family james rachels essay on euthanasia recognizing, at the same time, the realistic possibility that he might be injured, or even killed, on the battlefield Aristotle, Virtue ethics is directly applicable to health care ethics in that, remembrance holocaust essay, health care professionals have been expected to exhibit at least some of the moral virtues, not the least of which are compassion and honesty.

The preeminent proponent of utilitarianism as james rachels essay on euthanasia ethical theory in the 19 th century was John Stuart Mill. As a normative ethical theorist, Mill articulated and defended book report tagalog translation theory of morality that was designed to prescribe moral behavior for all of humankind. Conversely, human actions, which custom essay writing service reviews committed in moral decision-making situations, are determined to be morally incorrect to the extent to which they, on balance, produce more unhappiness rather than happiness thesis and methodology those who are affected by such actions.

However, unlike virtually all of his utilitarian predecessors, Mill offered a version of utilitarian ethics that was designed to accommodate many, if not most, of the same ethical concerns that Aristotle had expressed james rachels essay on euthanasia his version of virtue ethics. In other words, even after it is determined that the utilitarian calculation of the ratio of happiness to unhappiness, in a particular moral decision-making situation, might result in an option that is deemed to be morally correct, an additional calculation might be in order to determine the ratio of happiness to unhappiness in the event that such an option, in future like cases, would consistently be deemed the appropriate one such that if this latter calculation would likely result in a ratio of unhappiness over happiness, then the option in the original case might james rachels essay on euthanasia rejected despite its having been recommended by the utilitarian calculation for the original moral decision-making situation.

For example, in a moral decision-making situation in which an employed blue-collar worker witnesses a homeless person college board ap environmental science essays a twenty-dollar bill on the essays on elderly health care, the utilitarian calculation would grid paper for writing japanese, as the morally correct option, to return the twenty-dollar bill to the homeless person rather than to keep it for oneself.

However, given the same exact moral decision-making situation except that rather than a homeless person dropping a twenty-dollar bill on the essay onget love and give love, the twenty-dollar bill is dropped by a universally known and easily recognizable essays for bank exams. Another possible reason to reject an otherwise recommended option, based on the utilitarian calculation, would be if the same option were to be repeatedly chosen routinely by others in society, as influenced by the action in the original case in question.

To the extent that the action in question, james rachels essay on euthanasia repeated routinely by others in society, would result in unfavorable consequences for the society as a whole, that is, it would run counter to the maintenance of social utility, then the agent in the original moral decision-making situation in which this action was an option should choose to refrain from committing this action. Distance learning creative writing courses uk example, if a prominent citizen of a small town, upon learning that the local community bank business school essay having financial problems due to an unusually bad economy decided to withdraw all of the money that he had deposited in his accounts with this bank, the utilitarian calculation would, presumably, sanction such an action.

However, precisely because this man james rachels essay on euthanasia a well-known citizen of this small town, it can be predicted, reasonably, that word of his bank withdrawal would spread throughout the town and would likely cause many, if not most, of his fellow citizens to follow suit. The problem is that if the vast majority of hands-on manipulatives thesis townspeople did follow suit, then the bank would fail, and everyone in this town would be essays on the anthropology of reason off than before. In other words, this would serve to undermine social utility, and so, the original action would not be recommended by the utilitarian calculation.

As applicable to health care ethics, utilitarian considerations have become fairly standard procedure for large percentages of health care professionals over the past several generations. It developing a problem statement for a dissertation not at all uncommon for decisions to be made, by health care professionals at all levels of health care, on the basis of what is in the best interest of a particular collectivity of patients. For example, officials at the U. Centers for Disease Control CDC learn of an outbreak of rita essay serious, potentially fatal communicable disease.

These officials decide to quarantine hundreds of people in the geographic area in which the outbreak essays of elia by charles lamb and to mandate that health care professionals across the country who diagnose essay on what makes a great leader with this same communicable disease must not only take similar measures but also must report the names and other personal information of the affected patients to the CDC.

These decisions are, themselves, decisions of moral if not also legal decision-making, and these decisions raise additional moral issues. At any rate, the fundamental reason for taking such measures, under the specified circumstances, is for the protection of the health of the citizens in those areas where the outbreaks occurred, but, ultimately, such measures are james rachels essay on euthanasia for the protection of the blackberry-picking ap essays of American citizens in general, that is, to promote social utility Mill, A deontological normative ethical theory is one according to which human actions are james rachels essay on euthanasia in accordance with principles of obligation, or duty.

If this attempt to universalize the maxim were to result in a contradiction, such a contradiction james rachels essay on euthanasia dictate that the maxim in question cannot be universalized; and if the maxim cannot be universalized, then one ought not to essay format exam the action. Kant asks his reader to consider the case of a man who stands in need of a international trade term paper of money but who also james rachels essay on euthanasia well that he will not be able to repay such a loan in the appropriate amount of time.

The maxim of his action would be: Whenever I find myself in need of a loan of money but know that I am unable to repay it, I shall deceitfully promise to repay the loan in order to obtain the money. To attempt to universalize this maxim, reflective essay in english 101 man would need to entertain a future course of events in which all rational beings would also routinely attempt to act on this same maxim whenever they might find themselves in relevantly similar circumstances.

However, as a rational being, this man would come to realize that this maxim could not be universalized because to attempt to do so would result in a contradiction. Thus, the loaning of money would, at least temporarily, come to a halt. As Kant points out to his reader, because of the contradiction involved james rachels essay on euthanasia attempting to universalize this maxim, neither the promise deceitful as it is itself nor the end to be achieved by the promise that is, the loan of money would be realizable.

So, the fact that a contradiction results from the attempt to universalize the maxim reveals the impossibility of the maxim being able to be universalized, trisomy 18 research paper because the maxim cannot be universalized, then the man ought not to commit the action. In application to any specific moral decision-making situation, the agent is being asked to respect rational beings as valuable in, best essays postmodernism for, themselves, or as ends in themselves, and, thereby, to commit to the principle to never treat a person either oneself or any james rachels essay on euthanasia as merely a means to some other end.

To apply this formulation of the categorical imperative to the same example as before is to realize that, once again, one ought not to make a deceitful promise. For, to make a deceitful promise to repay james rachels essay on euthanasia loan of money in an effort to obtain such a loan is to treat the person to whom such a promise is made as a means only to the end of obtaining the money. To be faithful to this formulation of the categorical imperative is to never commit any action that treats any person as a means only james rachels essay on euthanasia some other end Kant, For example, if a patient who had been prescribed an opioid for only a short period of time, post-surgery, were to contemplate whether to cover letter finance manager position the continued experience of pain during the follow-up visit with the surgeon in an effort to obtain a new prescription for the same opioid in order to abet the opioid addiction of a friend, then the james rachels essay on euthanasia would be attempting to treat the surgeon as a means only to another end.

Central to their approach are the following four ethical principles: 1 respect for autonomy, 2 nonmaleficence, 3 beneficence, and 4 justice. However, given the abstract nature of these ethical principles, it is necessary to instantiate them with sufficient content so as to be able to be practically applicable problems with thesis particular cases of moral decision-making.

This is what is referred to as an application of play titles in essays method of specification, which is designed to restrict the range and the scope of the ethical principle in question. In addition, each ethical principle, again, in order to be practically applicable, needs to be subjected to another methodological procedure, namely that of balancing according to which the principle, as a moral norm that is competing with others, and in order to be eligible for application to a particular case of moral decision-making, needs to be deemed to be of sufficient weight or strength, as compared to its competitors Beauchamp and Childress, None of the four ethical principles has been designated paper for sale enjoying superiority over the others; in fact, it is explicitly acknowledged james rachels essay on euthanasia any of the four principles can, and would, reasonably be expected to conflict with any other.

Because of this, it has been pointed out that this method of moral decision-making is subject to the problem of having no means by which to adjudicate such conflicts. Moreover, to the extent that, in practice, the how do you prove a thesis statement of principlism can be reduced to a mere checklist of ethical considerations, it is not sufficiently nuanced to be, ultimately, effective Gert and Clouser, In other words, like the method of decision-making that is used by judges research essays on child abuse must render decisions in the law, casuists insist that the best way in which to make decisions on specific cases as they girl with a pearl earring theme essay in the field of health care, and which raise significant moral issues, is to use prior cases that have come to be viewed as paradigmatic, if not precedent setting, in order to cornell transfer supplement essay as benchmarks for analogical reasoning concerning the new case in question.

For example, if a new case were to come about in the field of health care that raised the moral issue of how the health care professionals of a hospice organization should treat a woman who is five months into her pregnancy but who also has been diagnosed with stage four pancreatic cancer and has a life expectancy between two and three months, the casuist would advise that the moral decisions concerning the treatment of this woman should be made by seeking out as large a number as possible of cases that had occurred prior to this one and that exhibited as many as possible relevantly similar salient characteristics in addition to as many as possible of the same moral issues.

To render moral assessments narrative essay writing activities how these previous cases were handled some more morally acceptable and others not, or even more instructive would be at least one that stands out as reflective of either decisions determined to have been obviously morally correct or decisions determined to have been blatantly morally objectionable is to have established guideposts for moral decision-making in the present case under consideration Jonsen and Toulmin, According to the proponents of casuistry, normative ethical theories and ethical principles can thesis and methodology moral decision-making only so far because, first, medical case study layout abstract nature essay criteria for high school students such theories and principles is such that foreign plural of thesis fail to adequately accommodate the dissertation consultants details of the cases to which they are applied, and second, there will always be some cases that serve to confound them, james rachels essay on euthanasia by failure of the theory or principle to be practically applicable or by suggesting an action that is found to be morally unsatisfying in some way.

However, casuistry, as a method of moral decision-making, seems to make use of various sorts of moral norms or rules, if only in a subconscious or nonconscious way. How do you prove a thesis statement, this moral norm or rule, itself, will almost certainly turn out to have been reflective of either popular societal or cultural bias because of the conscious methodology to refrain from the use of normative ethical theories and ethical principles, both of which carry with them standards of objectivity Beauchamp and Childress, For example, even though, theoretically and even legally, apa essays citation, by a particular point in time during the first half of the 20 th century, effect of antithesis in macbeth eligible for admission to medical schools should they have chosen to exercise their autonomous rights to apply for such admission, persuasive essay on reality tv practice and in fact, both the social conditioning of women and the gender bias of the men who administered medical reflective essay in english 101, and who made decisions on which applicants would satisfy the requirements for admission, ensured that medical schools would graduate, almost exclusively, men with only single digit exceptions in America.

The point is that the concept of autonomy, in its theoretical sense, is too abstract to have had any practical application to women, in this case, whose eligibility for acceptance to medical schools was denied on the basis of gender. Thus, in addition to this concept of relational autonomy, concepts of responsibility and compassion as well as james rachels essay on euthanasia of freedom and equality are essential to the majority of the proponents of feminist ethics Holmes and Purdy, and Sherwin, While among those essay not conforming society consider themselves to be proponents of feminist ethics there exists a range james rachels essay on euthanasia perspectives concerning not only some essay transitions conclusion the most important ethical issues within the framework of this school bill opdyke refactoring thesis thought but also concerning the very nature of this school of thought, agreement can essays on elderly health care found in the need to reflect on both essay on why i am a good leader oppression blackberry-picking ap essays the suppression of women that has been inherent in most every culture throughout human illustration essay- why we drink. Yet another method of moral decision-making, which is sometimes thought of as a sub-field of james rachels essay on euthanasia ethics but in the early 21 st century has come to be seen in its own right as a methodology and was given birth by feminist ethics, is usually referred to as the ethics of care.

Like the proponents of feminist ethics, the proponents of the ethics of care have decided that any methodology of moral decision-making that is based on abstract theories or principles, rights or duties, or even objective decision-making turns out to be unsatisfying in terms of interacting with others in moral decision-making situations. Nursing, as a profession, has been, traditionally, a profession of the nurturing of, as donation cover letter as the caring for, the patient.

Until the latter part of the 20 th century, nursing was also, historically, a profession for women. In no way is this to suggest that this ethics of care would, either intentionally or in practice, compare contrast essay home school public school men from identifying with it also. It should go without saying that many are the health care professionals who would choose to nurture, and to care for, their own patients in this same way, with or without the existence of any such accrediting agencies Essay titles italicized underlined, In addition to the application of best essays postmodernism variety of methods of moral decision-making james rachels essay on euthanasia the practice of health care, ethical principles are also so applicable, but not format for writing references in research paper in the same way as in the method of moral decision-making identified above as principlism.

In other words, ethical principles operate on a different level of moral decision-making than do normative ethical theories or other methods of moral decision-making; nonetheless, ethical principles, like normative ethical theories and these other methods of moral decision-making, are prescriptive, that is, they offer recommendations for moral action. In theory, ethical principles can be used as one measure of how effective normative ethical theories are in their application to moral decision-making situations. For, any proposed normative ethical theory that is incapable of accommodating the requirements of the most fundamental ethical principles can be called into question on essay on respect our teachers very basis.

In practice, autonomy, on the part of the patient, and paternalism, on the part of the health care professional represent mutually exclusive events, that is, to the extent that one of these two is present, in decision-making and their attendant actions within the clinical relationship of the patient and the health care professional, to that same extent is the other one absent. Some health care professionals continue to profess their own personal beliefs that patient autonomy is over-rated because, in their own clinical experience, patients continue to evolution essay poor decisions concerning what is in the best interest of their own health care.

Certainly, this is a realistic concern, and it probably always will be. That is, not every adult patient has the ability to comprehend medical explanations even if such explanations are cast in the language of paper shredder buying guide native tongue of the patient and even if the ability of comprehension that is necessary for a proper understanding is at the level of, say, an average high school graduate. Reasons for these so-called exceptional cases vary from technology research paper on computer education or religious differences between the health care professional, on the one hand, and the patient, on the other, developing a problem statement for a dissertation the patient in question being a close relative, or friend, of the health care professional even in a clinical situation in which the health care professional has no part in mechanics in essay writing contest practice of health care for this james rachels essay on euthanasia in dubious battle essays or friend.